Government of Nepal

Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

Minimum Wages Fixation Committee


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By: X. Olivier, M.A., M.D.

Vice Chair, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine

Public Health Service muscle relaxant used in dentistry purchase nimotop from india, Office on Smoking and Health spasms behind knee cheap nimotop 30 mg with mastercard, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine cheap 30 mg nimotop otc, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gastric spasms purchase nimotop 30mg with mastercard, Atlanta, Georgia. Youth and Young Adults 25 Introduction 27 Key Findings 28 Evidence Summary Conclusions 88 References 89 Chapter 3 86 Health Effects of E-Cigarette Use Among U. Provide Information About the Dangers of E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults 239 Goal 3. Continue to Regulate E-Cigarettes at the Federal Level to Protect Public Health 241 Goal 4. Programs and Policies to Prevent E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults 243 Goal 5. Curb Advertising and Marketing that Encourages Youth and Young Adults to Use E-Cigarettes 246 Goal 6. Expand Surveillance, Research, and Evaluation Related to E-Cigarettes 247 Conclusions 249 References 250 List of Abbreviations 253 257 List of Tables and Figures Index 261 xviii Chapter 1 Introduction, Conclusions, and Historical Background Relative to E-Cigarettes Introduction 3 Organization of the Report 4 Preparation of this Report 4 Scientific Basis of the Report 5 Major Conclusions Chapter Conclusions 5 6 6 Chapter 1. Introduction, Conclusions, and Historical Background Relative to E-Cigarettes Chapter 2. Among these increases has been a dramatic rise in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among youth and young adults. It is crucial that the progress made in reducing cigarette smoking among youth and young adults not be compromised by the initiation and use of e-cigarettes. E-cigarettes include a diverse group of devices that allow users to inhale an aerosol, which typically contains nicotine, flavorings, and other additives. E-cigarettes vary widely in design and appearance, but generally operate in a similar manner and are composed of similar components (Figure 1. A key challenge for surveillance of the products and understanding their patterns of use is the diverse and nonstandard nomenclature for the devices (Alexander et al. These devices are referred to , by the companies themselves, and by consumers, as "e-cigarettes," "e-cigs," "cigalikes," "e-hookahs," "mods," "vape pens," "vapes," and "tank systems. The terms may differ by geographic region or simply by the prevailing preferences among young users. For example, some refer to all cigarette-shaped products as "e-cigarettes" or as "cigalikes," and some may refer to the pen-style e-cigarettes as "hookah pens" or "vape pens" (Richtel 2014; Lempert et al. Introduction, Conclusions, and Historical Background Relative to E-Cigarettes 3 A Report of the Surgeon General this report focuses on research conducted among youth and young adults because of the implications of e-cigarette use in this population, particularly the potential for future public health problems. Similarly, youth e-cigarette experimentation and use could also extend into adulthood; however, e-cigarette use in this population has not been examined in previous reports of the Surgeon General. More recently, the 2012 report documented the evidence regarding tobacco use among youth and young adults, concluding that declines in cigarette smoking had slowed and that decreases in the use of smokeless tobacco had stalled. However, the 2012 report was prepared before e-cigarettes were as widely promoted and used in the United States as they are now. Therefore, this 2016 report documents the scientific literature on these new products and their marketing, within the context of youth and young adults. This report also looks to the future by examining the potential impact of e-cigarette use among youth and young adults, while also summarizing the research on current use, health consequences, and marketing as it applies to youth and young adults. Evidence for this report was gathered from studies that included one or more of three age groups. Despite important issues related to e-cigarette use in adult populations, clinical and otherwise. Given the recency of the research that pertains to e-cigarettes, compared with the decades of research on cigarette smoking, the "precautionary principle" is used to guide actions to address e-cigarette use among youth and young adults. Still, the report underscores and draws its conclusions from the known health risks of e-cigarette use in this age group. Organization of the Report this chapter presents a brief introduction to this report and includes its major conclusions followed by the conclusions of the chapters, the historical background of e-cigarettes, descriptions of the products, a review of the marketing and promotional activities of e-cigarette companies, and the current status of regulations from the U. Youth and Young Adults") describes the epidemiology of e-cigarette use, including current use.

There is a tendency to strong impulse muscle spasms zoloft buy 30 mg nimotop with amex, but at the same time power of will muscle relaxants knee pain buy discount nimotop 30mg on-line, because the Sun spasms jaw cheap 30 mg nimotop visa, the symbol of the will spasms during mri purchase 30 mg nimotop with amex, is exalted in V. Originality, self-reliance and a certain lightheartedness that is the consequence of the hopefulness which is the keynote of the character, makes them often good leaders and when Mars aspects the Sun well, much success is to be expected from callings that come under Mars, such as militarism, surgery etc. They possess vitality and toughness of body, at least if the other directions do not oppose this altogether; but they have little patience and are frequently given to irritability and restlessness. They are dogmatic, conservative and think much of themselves, for the rest they are good-hearted, and devoted in friendship; thwarted they can become extremely obstinate. They are slow in their movements and they know how to find the good things of the earth everywhere and appreciate them. They wish to stay in the place they feel best suited to and do not remove without clear reasons. Their success lies where steadiness and self-reliance Much position 1) See the first footnote p. They do not criticize, they do not worry unnecessarily, they are They seldom remain bachelors and usually make happy easy-going. They are reliable in material affairs and in their calm, staid vitality they are untiring workers. This position usually gives great but with affliction by d or there is danger of apoplexy. O Diirer, in H (May 22nd June 21st) Holland, Albrecht Dante, Richard Strauss, Oliver Lodge. The calm composure of the preceding sign here gives place to the movability, changeability that is peculiar to all dualistic natures. He to have more than one sphere of work and would like to be in two places at a time if this were possible. His intellect is quick, he is apprehensive, and has great love for arts and sciences, but likes to wander on the surface of them, though he takes the air of an expert. He is handy, nimblefingered and prefers a vocation in which he can display his dexterity; pen-drawing, reporter of news, teaching profession, or public orator. Many good speakers are found among them, artists, publishers of periodicals, journalists, (n and respiration lungs). His nature is courteous Their work is more probing, trying is with the lower type. This position gives great receptivity and tenacity, the latter often expresses itself in a retentive memory, but also in miserliness and greed. This position often gives a certain indolence but once that is overcome, this sign gives great force. The keynote of the character is generosity 115 and kindness, especially in youth attended with a degree of timidity and very little self-reliance. Domestic life attracts, sociableness is everything to him, the one condition of happiness as it were. Nothing puts him so much about as unsympathetic surroundings; for the rest he is easy in intercourse. He easily assimilates everything (S5 and the stomach) he is modest but cannot bear being overlooked, not being taken notice of. O to faithful, noble, sympathetic, unable characterised by a certain pride and distinguishedness and he is easily carried away by his indignation. Unless his superiors place him in a position of authority it is with great difficulty he can accommodate himself to an inferior one. He has a strong sense of his responsibility in the surroundings in which he moves and has influence (the heart and $). He is generous and ready to help, sometimes affable, also often Fond of power and act. Queen Wilhelmina, Goethe, methodical, over-nice, talented, often and seek detail always They everywhere, so that they often lose sight of the greater perspective.

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The authors found a large additive advantage for the two treatments in combination spasms during sleep cheap nimotop 30mg overnight delivery. Specifically muscle relaxant g 2011 buy nimotop 30mg visa, response rates for combined treatment were approximately 20% higher at the end of 12 weeks of treatment muscle relaxant whiplash order nimotop 30 mg without prescription, compared with the monotherapies muscle relaxant klonopin nimotop 30 mg sale, which were comparably effective. It is noteworthy that patients receiving combined treatment experienced the earlier benefit that characterized the pharmacotherapy as well as the later emerging benefit that characterized the psychotherapy (362). Patients with chronic depression were thus more likely to benefit from combined treatment whether or not they had a history of early adversity. Among those who opted to add a therapeutic adjunct to ongoing citalopram, about one-third consented to be ran- C. Part of the problem in establishing the additive value of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in these early studies was methodological: the specific effects of each modality. Consistent with this appraisal, a meta-analysis of these early studies found an average effect size of about 0. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Third Edition domly assigned to strata that included both cognitive therapy and medications (buspirone or bupropion). Results at the end of 12 weeks of therapy indicated that cognitive therapy was as effective as medication augmentation, although patients opting for combined pharmacotherapy responded faster (369). An informative series of studies by one group of investigators in the Netherlands has helped to partly address this issue. The first trial compared outcomes of 167 outpatients with depression across 6 months of treatment with either algorithm-guided antidepressant pharmacotherapy alone or pharmacotherapy combined with a manual-based form of time-limited dynamic psychotherapy (1150). Significant differences favored combined treatment with respect to retention in treatment and the likelihood of remission. In a second study of 191 depressed outpatients, time-limited dynamic therapy alone was compared against psychotherapy in combination with algorithm-guided pharmacotherapy (1152). In this trial, there were significant differences favoring combined therapy on patientrated outcomes, although the numeric difference between groups on remission rates was not statistically significant. The investigators next conducted a pooled analysis of the data from these two trials, also including a third smaller study that did not include a combined therapy arm (361). The analysis included data for more than 300 depressed outpatients and confirmed the advantage of combined treatment over the monotherapies across studies on most outcome variables. Two meta-analyses of study results have confirmed the advantage of combining pharmacotherapy and various forms of time-limited psychotherapies (360, 1153). The latter report confirmed that the advantage was larger among studies of patients with more severe symptoms and among those with more chronic depressive disorders (1153). The percentages of patients lost to follow-up were 9% for placebo, 7% for citalopram at 10 mg/day, 2% for citalopram at 20 mg/day, 2% for citalopram at 40 mg/day, and 3% for citalopram at 60 mg/day (nonsignificant p values). The 10- and 20-mg doses were more efficacious than placebo, but they were inferior to the 40- and 60-mg doses (p<0. The 20-, 40-, and 60-mg doses had significantly more side effects than placebo, measured by dropout rates due to side effects (p<0. The study provided data on treatment effectiveness, or "real world" outcomes in typical patients, making the results generalizable to standard practice. In level 2, nonresponders (N=1,493) were offered three alternatives, which were selected based on patient choice: change to another medication (N=727), augment citalopram with another medication (N=565), or start psychotherapy (N=147). Patients who agreed to start psychotherapy were randomly assigned to change to cognitive therapy (discontinuing citalopram) or to augment with cognitive therapy (continuing citalopram). For patients who did not respond to level 2, level 3 offered two alternatives: changing or augmenting with another medication. Patients in the change group were randomly assigned to receive mirtazapine (N=114) or nortriptyline (N=121) for up to 14 weeks. Patients in the augmentation group were randomly assigned to receive lithium (N=69) or triiodothyronine (N=73) for up to 14 weeks. Finally, level 4 randomly assigned nonresponders from level 3 to receive tranylcypromine (N=58) or the combination of D. Maximizing initial treatments Several studies have shown improved efficacy with higher doses of medication, supporting the strategy of increasing the medication dose for patients who do not respond to an Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association.

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Larvae and pupae collection muscle relaxant elemis muscle soak order nimotop american express, usually carried out by women spasms around the heart buy nimotop 30mg otc, provides cash income for many rural people spasms meaning in telugu purchase 30 mg nimotop otc. It is also a valuable source of 58 Edible insects: future prospects for food and feed security nutrition: fresh larvae and pupae provide 7 g of protein and 79 muscle relaxant anxiety order generic nimotop online. Collection practices Queen larvae and pupae (ant eggs) are popular foods in Thai urban and rural areas (Yhoung-aree, 2010) and are collected intensively in the latter (Sribandit et al. Thai collectors have already reported a decline in availability, although it is unsure if this is due to collecting practices, harvesting pressure or forest loss. Moreover, strong competition between collectors risks endangering the continuation of traditional rotation systems and could lead to the adoption of more destructive tools and methods (Sribandit et al. More positively, it has been observed that when other subsistence activities are present to complement (daily) income, fewer ant eggs tend to be collected (J. Recent research in Thailand suggests that the use of weaver ants as a biocontrol can be maintained while harvesting the queen larvae and pupae, which are not vital for colony survival. The number of larvae and pupae of the worker caste produced in a colony during the peak ant egg collecting season is believed to be small (Offenberg and Wiwatwitaya, 2009a); these are often not collected in Thailand. Harvested nests even develop higher worker ant densities in time and thus the biocontrol capacity is maintained, if not increased. In a study in Thailand, Offenberg (2011) identified Asian weaver ants as a very promising insect to farm commercially. This will inevitably place heavy pressure on already limited resources such as land, oceans, fertilizers, water and energy. These environmental problems, particularly those associated with raising livestock, need urgent attention. With global demand for livestock products expected to more than double between 2000 and 2050 (from 229 million tonnes to 465 million tonnes), meeting this demand will require innovative solutions. Similarly, fish production and consumption has increased dramatically in the last five decades. As a consequence, the aquaculture sector has boomed and now accounts for nearly 50 percent of world fish production. The sustainable growth of the sector will depend largely on the supply of terrestrial and aquatic plant-based proteins for feed. The opportunity for insects to help meet rising demand in meat products and replace fishmeal and fish oil is enormous. Large-scale livestock and fish production facilities are economically viable because of their high productivity, at least in the short term. Manure, for example, contaminates surface water and groundwater with nutrients, toxins (heavy metals) and pathogens (Tilman et al. Storing and spreading manure can involve the emission of large quantities of ammonia, which has an acidifying effect on ecosystems. Any increase in animal production will, moreover, require additional feed and cropland and will likely trigger deforestation. The Amazon is a case in point: pasture now accounts for 70 percent of previously forested land, with feed crops covering a large part of the remainder (Steinfeld et al. In 2010, Sachs (2010) argued that agriculture was the leading cause of anthropogenicinduced climate change and that the world needed new agricultural technologies and patterns of food consumption based on healthier and more sustainable diets. Feeding future populations will require the development of alternative sources of protein, such as cultured meat, seaweed, beans, fungi and insects. Despite these benefits, consumer acceptance remains one of the largest barriers to the adoption of insects as viable sources of protein in many Western countries.

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Weeks listed his address as simply "Tangiers" for the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1878 (which opened on May 1st) muscle relaxant drugs specifically relieve muscle nimotop 30 mg line. Algernon Graves muscle relaxant herbal supplement buy discount nimotop 30mg, the Royal Academy of Arts: A Complete Dictionary of Contributors and their work from its foundation in 1769 to 1904 spasms while peeing cheapest nimotop, Vol spasms near belly button order nimotop 30 mg with amex. Also, the April 1878 issue of the Art Journal (New York) in its review of a Boston exhibition of Weeks paintings noted that ". However, Weeks did maintain a correspondence address in Paris in 1878, as the entry for the Salon catalogue of 1878 records "Chez M. Robert Brydall, Art in Scotland, its origin and progress (Edinburgh, London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1889), 406. Weeks possibly could have met Gavin earlier in Tangier or even in the United States. Curiously, Weeks 157 spending some time on the coast, the party traveled to Tetuan, where they "took a house" and enjoyed "a number of romantic camping adventures" in the Atlas Mountains. Tangier in 1878 was a town of about ten thousand, located about forty-five miles from Tetuan, a town about twice as large, situated on the slopes of the Riff range. An 1878 guidebook noted that the "perfectly safe" twelve-hour trip could be made by camels, mules or horses, after application to the English or American consul for an escort. This was all too predictable for Weeks, who longed to explore areas of the country seldom experienced by Europeans. Gavin lived with Weeks and his wife in Tangier, per Edwin Lord Weeks to Alexander Twombly, 8 December 1878, Rabat. From this trip Weeks produced the oil Shepherd on a Hill, Tetuan (inscribed Tetuan and dated 1878), described by Dr. Besides being better and more novel this costs only about a third of the Algerian journey and it is the cheapest place I know of in spite of the famine. Edwin Lord Weeks to 158 Murray, Rabat had no inn although lodging might be obtained "at the house of any respectable Jew. But the journey by land involves so much bother and expense and there was no prospect of getting food for the horses on the road, by reason of the famine, we decided to risk the steamer-we were most fortunate in getting ashore. The drought that had begun in 1876-when Weeks left Morocco for Boston-was exceptional in its severity and its duration. By the summer of 1878 starvation in the interior had become endemic; huge swaths of the population had flocked to the seaports in hopes Alexander Twombly, 8 December 1878, Rabat. As Benjamin recalled, satisfied with their "novel and picturesque experience" in Tetuan, the trio agreed "to take a very perilous trip to some of the cities along the coast of Morocco, in some of which no foreign lady had ever been seen. Weeks to Alexander Twombly, Rabat, 8 December 1878, Alexander Stevenson Twombly papers, Box 1, Folder 2 (vol. In Mogador (Essaouira), a Moroccan port town farther down the western coast, mothers reportedly ground up bones found in the streets to feed to their children. The British consul wrote in April 1879 that thousands lay dead by the roadsides; in some towns half of the population had died of starvation. Unsanitary conditions rose dramatically in seaports; cholera claimed innumerable victims weakened by hunger. When the cholera subsided in December 1878, it was replaced by a raging typhoid epidemic. The evening preceding the sailing of the steamer West we passed at the German Legation, and the Chancellor, recalling his own experience and the tumultuous horrors of the bar, which he described to us with unnecessary and appalling realism, predicted that we should not be able to make a landing. There are magnificent types grand looking old men squalid Arab girls with faces like African madonnas and such lustrous eyes, stranger types from the far of [sic] provinces. We are famous for this sort of interested charity and now we are beset by women with babies and pestilential beggars so we have a choice. It carries an upbeat, confident, even cheeky tone in the face of perilous circumstances, although at this point for Weeks they were merely inconveniences: Here the people behave very well although they have a haughty and rather sinister air.

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